Dental Anatomy Final Review

Review – Anatomy Review

What are the muscles that act as protagonists and close the mandible? (Masseter, Internal Pterygoid and Temoralis)

What is muscle that is considered both muscle of mastication and facial expression? (Buccinator)

Give the reasons for the two classification muscles – Facial Expression and Mastication? (Facial muscles facial expressions & move soft tissue of face; Muscles of Mastication move jaw for chewing)

What bones give structure to the roof of the mouth? (Palatine bones)

The Palatine bones unite at the ____? (Mid Palentine suture)

What does George consider to be the strongest muscle in the human body? (Masseter)

What muscles make up the floor of the mouth? (Mylohyoid, Genohyoid, Digastric and Stylohyoid)

What is a synapse ? (Space between two adjacent nerve cells)

Name the artery the supplies blood to the oral tissue? (Internal carotid)

Soooo… figure out what the External Carotid and Internal Carotid Arteries do because what George told us is different from ALL WEBSITES I CHECKED AND THE BOOK. Good luck.

Name the tissues of the tooth and composition of them? (Dentin, Cementum and Enamel are hard; Pulp is soft)

Name the nerve that supplies the muscles of facial expression? (Cranial nerve number 7)

Name the nerve that supplies the muscles of mastication? (Cranial nerve number 5)

Name the blood vessels at the arch of the aorta? (Brachiocephalic, Left Common Carotid and Left Subclavion Arteries)

Why is the hamular notch important when constructing a denture? (Hamular notch is the most distal part of the maxillary denture and serves as the start and finish line for the postdam seal)

How many bones make up the orbit of the eye? (7 bones) <—NEW… we never actually learned this in lecture.

What bones make up the framework of the cheek? (the zygomatic and maxillary bones)

The antagonists of the muscles that close the mandible? (External/ lateral teragoid)

What connects bone to bone? (ligament)

What are the main sutures on top of the head? (Coronal, Midsagittal, lambdoid)

The mandibular division of the trigenimal nerve is? (Sensory) —Although if you look it up, the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve has a large sensory root AND a small motor root so only saying sensory is not correct.

List the 4 chambers of the heart? (R Atrium, R Ventricle, L Atrium, L Ventricle)

Arteries blood carry oxygenated blood to the heart , name the exception to the he rule ? (Pulmonary vein)

What bring blood away from the heart? (Artery)

What joint connects the mandible to the top half of the skull? (TMJ)

When expressing feelings muscles of the face usually function as a group?

What is the reason for the foramen visible on the skull? (Serve as pathway for nerves and lymphatic & vascular tissue)

Number of deciduous teeth (baby teeth)? (20)

Number of teeth in a complete denture? (28)

The smallest unit that makes up the body? (Cell)

What are the groups of tissues acting to perform a particular function? (Organ)

Name the blood vessel that leaves the right ventricle? (Pulmonary artery)

The pterygoid process provide attachment for which muscle of mastication? (Mastication)

How many bones are in the skull ? (22)

The periosteum that covers all bone EXCEPT the _______ ? (Joints)

What is the side of the muscle that moves less? (Origin)

What is the function of alveoli ? (Exchanges O2 for CO2 gas)

What is the slight contraction of a muscle at rest? (Muscle tone)

The mesial surface of which tooth lies next to the distal surface of the mandibular first molar? (Mandibular second molar)

Name the structure in the neck that senses blood composition and when pressure changes? (Carotid sinus)

What is the portion of the mandible that houses the teeth? (Alveolar ridge)

What is the Masseter muscle?

Where does the Lamdoid run in hype suture? (Parietal and occipital)

Both cranial nerves #5&7 (Sensory, motor or both) *answer is BOTH

What is the function of the periodontal membrane? (Protects the alveolar tissue)

What is the hole that runs through the occipital bone allowing for the connection of the brain and spinal cord? (Foramen magnum)

What is the Bennett movement? (One condial rotates & the other translates)

What artery supplies blood to the mandibular teeth? (Inferior alveolar artery)

Name the artery that supplies blood to the posterior maxillary teeth? (Posterior Superior Alveolar Artery)

What is the difference between the alveolar ridge and the alveolar process? (The alveolar ridge exists in a patient that has no teeth, the alveolar process is in a patient that does have teeth and it is the part of the bone that houses the roots of the teeth)

Define edentulous? (No teeth- not even one)

What is the mandibular condial? (Most superior,  most distal part of mandible)

What is the number of cranial nerves? (12)

The mylohyoid ridge serves as the attachment for which muscles? (Super hyoid muscles)

KNOW DIAGRAMS OF THE HEART FOR THE LAST 8 QUESTIONS!!!!

Dental A+P | Lectures 6 + 7 | 10.21.13

4 Main Cranial Sutures:

  1. Coronal Suture – between the frontal and parietal bones
  2. Sagittal Suture – between the two parietal bones
  3. Lambdoid Suture – between the parietal bones and the occipital bone
  4. Squamous Sutures – between the temporal and parietal bones, there is one on each side of the head

Process- a piece of bone that extends out from the main body of the bone

Fossa – depression in the bone

Protuberance – bone that sticks out [Example: Condyle on the mandible]

CONNECTIVE TISSUES:
Periosteum
– a membrane that covers bone surfaces except at joints
Tendons – attach muscle to bone
Ligaments – attach bone to bone, and are elastic, tough, denser than muscle and have high sheer and tensile strength

There are 14 Facial bones: Maxilla [2], Mandible, Zygomatic [2], Lacrimal [2], Inferior Concha [2], Nasal [2], Palatine [2] and  Vomer

Skull Side View

Skull Front View

Functions of Facial Bones:

  1. Give shape to the front of the skull
  2. Forms the palate [palatine bones and maxilla]
  3. Forms part of the eye orbit and nasal cavity
  4. Forms the framework for the floor of the mouth
  5. Supports the teeth

MAXILLA:

  • 4 processes -
    1. Zygomatic Process
    2. Frontal Process/ Nasal Process
    3. Alveolar Process
    4. Palatine Process
  • Alveolar Process – the bone that extends out from the maxilla that holds the teeth. When there are no teeth [the person is edentulous], this is called the alveolar ridge.
  • Palate – the roof of the mouth – the MAXILLARY and PALATINE BONES make up the roof of the mouth
  • Cleft Palate – occurs when the sutures that connect the bones of the palate do not completely close. An obturator is a prosthetic device to cover the incomplete palate

MANDIBLE:

The only movable bone in the skull, forms the framework for the floor of the mouth

Mandible

Structures of the Mandible:

  1. Body
  2. Ramus
  3. Angle of the Mandible
  4. Condyle – fits into fossa on temporal bone to form TMJ
  5. Coronoid Process
  6. Sigmoid Notch
  7. External Oblique Ridge
  8. Mental Foramen - two holes on anterior surface of mandible
  9. Mandibular Canal – canal in bone where blood vessels and nerves enter and run below teeth
  10. Mylohyoid Ridge - attachment place for muscles that make up the floor of the mouth
  11. Submandibular Fossa
  12. Retromolar Triangle – triangular area posterior to the 3rd molar

Bones fracture in 4 different ways:

  1. Green stick – hairline fracture
  2. Complete fracture – broken, but does not break through the skin
  3. Compound fracture – a complete fracture that breaks through the skin
  4. Comminuted – bone is shattered/ fragmented

Muscles:

Most muscles cover bone

3 Type of Muscles:

  1. Smooth – involuntary
  2. Skeletal – striated – voluntary
  3. Cardiac – heart muscle – involuntary

Purpose of Muscles of the Skull:

  1. Mastication – move mandible
  2. Facial Expression

Muscle Tone – slight contraction of muscle at rest, unused muscles lose muscle tone

Dental A+P | Lecture #5 | 10.7.13

There are 22 Bones in the head: 8 Cranial bones and 14 Facial Bones

Functions of these bones:

  1. Protection
  2. Support
  3. Shape
  4. Occlusion
  5. Equilibrium

Eight Cranial Bones: Frontal, 2 Parietal, Occipital, 2 Temporal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid

Image

Frontal Bone

  • Front of skull, forehead

PARIETAL BONES

  • 2 bones at the top of the skull, right parietal and left parietal

OCCIPITAL BONE

  • Back of skull
  • Foramen Magnum – large hole at the base of the occipital bone where the spinal cord attaches to the brain [foramen = hole, magnum = large]

TEMPORAL BONES

  • 2 bones on either side of the skull, right temporal bone and left temporal bone
  • articulate with the mandible at the TMJ – the concavity in the temporal bones accept the condyle of the mandible [the condyle is located on the end of the part of the mandible called the ramus]
  • the auditory canal is part of the temporal bone

SPHENOID

  • Situated in the front middle of the skull, kind of looks like a butterfly
  • Sella Turcica – translates to “Turkish saddle” – Curved seat that holds and protects the pituitary gland

ETHMOID

  • small bone that sits between the nasal cavity and brain

Foramen – a hole in a bone for nerves and blood vessels to pass through, allows for pathways for efficient circulation preventing pinched nerves or vessels

  • Jugular foramen- hole for jugular vein
  • Foramen rotundum – round hole
  • Foramen ovale – oval hole

Sinus – empty space created by bone

Intro Technical Dentistry | Midterm Notes

Intro Technical Dentistry notes are added as a separate page at the top of the blog’s mainpage, but I thought I’d put them up as a blog post too for anyone who is subscribing to updates via email.

The five periods into which we divide the history of dentistry:

  1. Ancient Dentistry
  2. Greek and Roman Dentistry
  3. Medieval Dentistry
  4. Modern Dentistry
  5. Dentistry in the USA

Ancient Dentistry

Babylonia

  • At this time it was believed disease came from demons
  • priest healed with magical medicine
  • No carries (cavities) due to their diet, food was tougher
  • Teeth were subjected to attrition and abrasion

2,200 BC

  • Evidence of oral hygiene
  • Toothpicks made of gold and silver
  • Wrapped cloth around the finger to clean teeth

1790 BC  Code of Hammurabi

  • First time practitioners could be held responsible for their actions
  • Often scaled punishments adjusting “eye for an eye”, graded depending on social status

Legend of the Worm

  • 5000 BC Sumerian text describes a “tooth worm” the cause of decay
  • Tooth was extracted then examined
  • Evey tooth had a hole (pulp canal) and a worm like substance (nerve) inside

Greek and Roman Dentistry Period

Egyptians 3000 BC

  • Hesi-Re first dentist dentist “Chef of the Toothers”

Greek Dentistry

  • Medicine and dentistry first practiced by shepherds → priests → magicians →  true physician emerged
  • not formally educated but through apprenticeships Father → Son

3 types of physicians

  1. Physician
  2. Research and education did not practice
  3. Technicians

Worshiped gods

Aesculapius –  God of Medicine

St.  Appolonia – Patron Saint of Dentistry

Hippocrates – “Father of Medicine”

  • Began to outline a rational approach to treatment
  • Vitals must be in balance or disease would occur
  • Wrote about teeth and their eruption
  • recommended dentifrice

Aristotle

  • Started the science of
  1. Anatomy
  2. Natural science
  3. Embryology
  4. Zoology
  • Wrote book on teeth (they vary according to use)
  • They are important in articulation (speech)
  • Teeth are formed before bone
  • Men have more teeth than woman
  • People with more teeth live longer
  • The gingiva is responsible for tooth formation

Down fall of Greece

  • Politics
  • Money problems
  • Can’t afford army

Roman Dentistry

Etruscans 200 BC

  • First time in history we found evidence of prosthodontics
  • Gold banded and secured with a calves tooth in the space ( not until mid 19th century did anything compare to the quality of these prosthetics)
  • 309 BC  Rome slaughtered the Etruscan people

Romans

  • Technical Dentistry
  • Ability to work on casts
  • Used terra cotta (baked clay) to make a positive reproduction of the mouth
  • made bridges out of gold
  • made partials
  • able to solder

Celsus

  • Famouse writer of medicine
  • Treat an abscess with a herb poultice
  • gum disease
  • ligating fractures of the mandible and liquid diet

Galen

  • First to confirm decay is not caused by a tooth worm
  • Acid causes carries (decay cavities)
  • Teeth have pulp
  • classified teeth, but still no separation of pre molars and molars

Orgies

  • Eating parties
  • binge and purge
  • vomitorium
  • mouthwash= baby urine

Non Europe

Mayans and the Aztec

  • Practiced advanced dentistry
  1. Operative Dentistry – working in the mouth
  2. Technical Dentistry – working on a cast
  • Gold inlay
  • Bridges

After 200 years of peace the Roman Empire fell apart

  • Fighting
  • Money problems
  • Disease

Barbarians took over scientific observation stopped